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八年级(下)Units 8-9词语用法秀

作者:admin 发表于:2016-09-10   点击: 评论: 0

  一、单词

  1. comment ⑴n. 评论。常构成短语no comment(通常用于回答记者)。eg:

  Do you have any comment about this? 你对此有何评论?

  ——Will you criticize the manager? 你会批评经理吗?

  ——No comment! 无可奉告!

  ⑵v. 评论,表达意见。常构成短语comment on sth.。eg:

  I can’t comment on their decision. 我无法对他们的决定作出评论。

  2. asleep adj. 睡着的。常作表语,构成以下短语:

  ⑴be sound asleep睡得很香。eg:

  The baby is sound asleep. 婴儿睡得很香。

  ⑵fall asleep睡着。eg:

  He was so tired that he fell asleep at the desk. 他如此劳累竟趴在桌子上睡着了。

  3. choose v. 选择。过去式为chose,过去分词为chosen。eg:

  If I have to choose, I would like to invite Tom to my home.

  如果必须要选择的话,我想邀请汤姆到我家来。

  拓展:①后可跟不定式。eg:

  I chose to go there by train. 我选择乘火车去那儿。

  ②其名词是choice。eg:

  He has many choices all his life. 他一生中有很多次选择。

  4. encourage v. 鼓励。常构成短语encourage sb. to do sth.,意为:鼓励某人做某事。eg:

  Our teachers encourage us to speak English more. 老师鼓励我们多说英语。

  5. suggest v. 建议;提议。常用结构:⑴suggest doing sth. 建议做某事。eg:

  Mr Green suggests climbing a hill. 格林先生建议爬山。

  ⑵suggest+that从句(谓语常用“should+动词原形”)。eg:

  They suggest that we should organize a contest. 他们建议我们组织一次比赛。

  6. mention v. 提及;说到。常用结构:⑴mention sth. 提及某事。eg:

  Sorry, I won’t mention the accident again. 对不起,我不会再提起那次事故了。

  ⑵mention+从句。eg:

  Did he mention where he was leaving for? 他提到要去哪儿了吗?

  ⑶用于口语(回答感谢的句子)。eg:

  “Thanks for your help.” “谢谢你的帮助。” “Don’t mention it.” “不客气。”

  7. neither ⑴pron. 两者都不。eg:

  Neither of them has a car. 他们俩都没有车。

  ——Which one do you like better? 你更喜欢哪一个?

  ——Neither. 两个都不喜欢。

  ⑵adv. 也不。表示否定的陈述同样适用其他人或物,常构成句式:“主语(宾格)+neither./Neither+助动词/情态动词/be动词+主语”。表示某人也如此。eg:

  ——I have never been to New York. 我从没去过纽约。

  ——Me neither./Neither have I. 我也没去过。

  ⑶构成短语neither…nor… 两者都不;既不……也不……。eg:

  Neither he nor I am an engineer. 他和我都不是工程师。

  注意:连接两个主语时,谓语动词遵循就近原则。

  8. exchange ⑴n. 交换;交流。常构成短语in exchange for… 以……交换……。eg:

  I think we need an exchange of ideas. 我想我们需要交换意见。

  Would you like my ticket in exchange for your gift? 用我的票换你的礼物,你愿意吗?

  ⑵v. 交换;交流。eg:

  The two English-speaking countries exchange their ideas about that question.

  两个说英语的国家就那个问题交换了意见。

  9. requirement n. 要求eg:

  My only requirement is to go with you. 我唯一的要求是和你一起去。

  拓展:require v. 要求。

  ①require+名词。eg:

  Pets require lots of care. 宠物需要悉心照顾。

  ②require+sb. to do sth. 要求某人做某事。eg:

  The teacher required us to finish the work on time. 老师要求我们按时完成作业。

  ③require+doing 要求/需要(被做)。用主动形式表被动意义,与need doing同义,主语通常是物。eg:

  This kind of food doesn’t require cooking. 这种食物无需烹饪。

  10. explain v. 解释。eg:

  It is difficult to explain the problem for you. 给你解释这个问题很难。

  常用结构:

  ⑴explain+that从句。eg:

  Tom explained that something was wrong with his bike.

  汤姆解释说他的自行车出了毛病。

  ⑵explain+疑问词引导的从句。eg:

  Our teacher explained how the machine worked.

  我们的老师解释了这台机器是怎样工作的。

  11. population n. 人口。作主语时,谓语动词用单数。eg:

  The population of our city is 38,000. 我们城市的人口是三万八千人。

  拓展:①形容人口多少用large和small。eg:

  China has a large population. 中国人口众多。

  Although Japan has a small population, it has developed very fast.

  尽管日本人口少,可它发展得很快。

  ②对人口提问,不用how many而是用what。eg:

  What’s the population of Singapore? 新加坡的人口是多少?

  12. fear ⑴v. 害怕。其后可跟不定式、代词、名词以及that从句。eg:

  He fears to tell me the truth. 他不敢告诉我真相。

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  All of us fear our English teacher. 我们都害怕英语老师。

  Henry always fears that he can’t pass the exam. 亨利总担心他不能通过考试。

  ⑵n. 害怕。常构成短语with fear。eg:

  The little boy was shaking with fear. 那小男孩吓得浑身发抖。

  二、短语

  1. give away ⑴赠送;捐赠。eg:

  The old man gave away all his money to charity.

  这个老人把所有的钱都捐给了慈善事业。

  ⑵分发。相当于hand out/give out。eg:

  The teacher is giving away the papers. 老师正在发试卷。

  2. hear of 听说,与hear about相似。eg:

  I heard of Li Yundi several years ago. 几年前我听说过李云迪。

  拓展:hear from sb. 收到某人的来信eg:

  Mary hears from Lily once a week. 玛丽每周都收到一封莉莉的来信。

  3. end up 以……结束;结果为……。

  常见用法有:

  ⑴end up+介词。eg:

  If you don’t listen to me, you’ll end up in failure. 如果你不听我的话,你会以失败告终。

  ⑵end up doing sth.。eg:

  At first we all talked in English, but we ended up speaking Chinese.

  起初我们都用英语交谈,最后却说起了汉语。

  ⑶end up+形容词。eg:

  If she goes on diet, she will end up dead. 如果她继续节食,她会饿死的。(dead可用in hunger替换)

  三、辨析

  1. through与across的区别

  ⑴through穿过。多指从内部穿过。eg:

  It took us half an hour to walk through the forest. 步行穿越这片森林花了我们半小时。

  ⑵across穿过。多指:

  ①横穿。eg:

  Can you swim across the river? 你能游过这条河吗?

  ②从物体表面穿过。eg:

  Those guys were walking across the desert. 那些家伙正徒步穿越沙漠。

  2. instead, instead of与take the place of的区别

  ⑴instead是副词,在句中作独立成分。eg:

  Mike doesn’t study at all. Instead, he sits idle all day.

  迈克根本不肯读书。相反地,他终日游手好闲。

  ⑵instead of是介词短语,后可接名词、代词、动名词等形式。二者有时可相互替换。eg:

  He didn’t buy any presents. Instead, he gave away all the money to Hope Project.

  =He gave away all the money to Hope Project instead of buying some presents.

  他没买礼物而是把所有的钱捐给了希望工程。

  ⑶take the place of sb.“代替某人(的位置)”是动词短语,在句中可作谓语。eg:

  I’ll take the place of him to speak at the meeting tomorrow morning.

  明天早上我将代他在会上发言。

  3. nearly与almost的区别

  均可用于all, every, everybody等词之前。eg:

  Nearly/Almost all the students can speak English clearly.

  几乎所有学生的英语都能说得很清楚。

  ⑴nearly最常与数字连用。eg:

  There are nearly 200 students on stage. 参加表演的有接近200名学生。

  ⑵almost常与否定词(not, no, nobody, never)连用。eg:

  She’s almost never at home. 她几乎从不在家。

  ⑶almost还可用于表示两事物相似。eg:

  The plane looks almost like a bird. 那架飞机看上去简直像只鸟。

  4. have been to, have gone to与have been in的区别

  ⑴have been to some place表示“去过某地了”,现在已不在那个地方了。eg:

  I have been to Mount Tai. 我去过泰山了。(I am not there now.)

  ⑵have gone to some place 表示“到某地去了”,现在在去某地的路上或已经在那儿了。eg:

  My father isn’t at home. I think he has gone to his company.

  我爸不在家,我觉得他是去他的公司了。

  ⑶have been in some place表示“在某地呆了多长时间”,与时间段连用。eg:

  Mr Smith has been in China for two years. 史密斯先生在中国呆了两年了。

  5. discover, invent与find的区别

  ⑴discover意为先于他人首次发现已经存在的东西。eg:

  Who discovered America? 谁发现了美洲?

  ⑵invent意为发明或创造不曾存在的东西。eg:

  Edison invented over one thousand things all his life. 爱迪生一生有1000多项发明。

  ⑶find指找到或无意中发现。eg:

  Can you help me find my book? 你能帮我找到我的书吗?

  I found a dog lying on the road. 我发现一条狗躺在路上。

  6. such as, like与for example的区别

  ⑴for example作“例如”讲时,一般只以同类事物或人中的“一个”为例,作插入语,用逗号隔开,可置于句首、句中或句末。eg:

  Noise is a kind of pollution, for example. 例如,噪音就是一种污染。

  ⑵such as也作“例如”讲,用来列举同类人或事物中的几个例子,只能举出其中的一部分,不能全部举出。eg:

  Some of the European languages come from Latin, such as French, Italian and Spanish.

  有些欧洲语言来源于拉丁语,例如,法语、意大利语和西班牙语。

  Boys such as John and James are very friendly. 像约翰和詹姆斯这样的男孩都很友好。

  ⑶like也常用来举例,可与such as互换。eg:

  You can buy fruits here, such as/like bananas and apples.

  你可以在这儿买水果,像香蕉和苹果。

  7. especially与specially的区别

  ⑴especially是副词,后面所接的人或物是前面提到的人或物的解释或强调,具体到某个个体上。eg:

  I love Japan, especially in summer. 我喜欢日本,尤其是在夏天。

  ⑵specially是副词,表示为了某个目的而“特别地,专门地”去做某事。eg:

  I made a chocolate cake specially for you. 我特意为你做了一个巧克力蛋糕。

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