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小“s”大区别

作者:admin 发表于:2016-09-12   点击: 评论: 0

   “s”是个简单的英文字母,可以加在可数名词后面,表复数形式;也可以用在一般现在时态动词的后面,表示主语是单数第三人称。如:

  1. He walks to school every day.

  2. Mary gets up early every morning.

  3. That woman often talks loudly.

  除了把单数名词变成复数名词以及表示单数第三人称之外,“s”还出现在某些单词上,使它和没有“s”的词呈现出两个不同语义;“beside”和“besides”便是个很好的例子。

  “beside”是“在……旁边”的意思;“besides”是“除此之外”的意思。两者都是介词,但后者也是个副词。如果把这两个词等同起来是大错特错的;因此,例4和例5不对,要改为例6和例7。

  4. Susan is sitting besides me. (×)

  5. Beside dancing, the children also sang. (×)

  6. Susan is sitting beside me. (√)

  7. Besides dancing, the children also sang. (√)

  一般来说,“beside”在句子后半部分出现。如:

  8. Some people prefer living beside the sea.

  9. The small boy is standing beside his mother.

  “besides”的位置不定;可以在句前,也可在句尾。如:

  10. Besides being a diligent student, Peter is also a good athlete.

  11. I have written some other books on language learning besides this one.

  上述两个例子中的“besides”是介词;它也可以作副词。如:

  12. I like reading; besides, I also like writing.

  13. He sings pop songs. Besides, he also listens to classical music.

  注意:作副词的“besides”要用句号(.)或分号(;)与前面的内容隔开。

  为了使句子多样化,12和13两个句子可以联合起来变成一个较长的句子,但意思不变。因此,例12可以连接成⑿(a)-(e);例13也可以重新构成⒀(a)-(e)。

  ⑿(a)I like reading and writing.

  (b)I like reading as well as writing.

  (c)I like both reading and writing.

  (d)I like not only reading but also writing.

  (e)Besides reading, I also like writing.

  ⒀(a)He sings pop songs and listens to classical music.

  (b)He sings pop songs as well as listening to classical music.

  (c)He not only sings pop songs but also listens to classical music.

  (d)Besides singing pop songs, he also listens to classical music.

  (e)He listens to classical music in addition to singing pop songs.

  上面谈了带“s”和不带“s”的词,并举例说明了“beside”和“besides”两个词的不同之处。

  这里再举出另外两个容易混淆的常用词,以进一步说明有“s”和没有“s”的词的差异。这两个词是“sometime”和“sometimes”。

  “sometime”是个时间副词,意思是“在某时期”。这个词通常和日期或时间连用,出现在句子的后半部分, 用来确定本来不肯定的时间或日期。如:

  1. The accident happened sometime last month.

  2. Let us discuss the matter sometime next week.

  “sometimes”是个频率副词,意思和“occasionally”或“from time to time”接近,是“有时候”或“偶尔”之意。

  “sometimes”和“sometime”不但意思不同, 所处的位置也不一样。“sometimes”可以在下列三处出现:

  1. 句首。如:

  Sometimes, I didn’t feel like working.

  2. 系动词“be”之后。如:

  The new manager was sometimes very hot-tempered.

  3. 动词前。如:

  They sometimes stayed up until 2 o’clock.

  就用途来说,“sometime”的用途广些。除了表示“在某时期”的意思之外,它也含有“任何时候”的意思。如:

  Come over and see me sometime.

  这里的“sometime”可以用“anytime”代替,即: Come over and see me anytime.

  此外,“sometime”可以当形容词用,意思是“以前的”。如:

  Dr Wang, a sometime lecturer of chemistry, is now a big company director.

  这里的“sometime”可以用另外一个形容词“former”或前缀“ex-”来取代:

  Dr Wang, a former lecturer of chemistry, is now a big company director.

  =Dr Wang, an ex-lecturer of chemistry, is now a big company director.

  另外,必须指出一点,就是“sometime”和“some time”的意思不同。“sometime”是“在某时”;“some time”是“一段时间”。如:

  All of us have studied English for some time.

  Betty has been grumbling for some time.

  Please give me some time to think over your proposal.

  Do you have some time now? I want to talk to you.

  由于 sometimes, sometime和some time各有不同的意思,在同一个句子里出现可以和平共处:

  Sometimes, I spent some time reading a sometime English lecturer’s novel written sometime in 1996. 有时,我花些时间阅读前英语讲师在 1996 年某时期所撰写的一本小说。

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